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In this article, you will learn how the psychology of behavior and human activity are related. Get acquainted with the main types of human personality, and see how much a person s behavior affects his capabilities and activity.
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Behavior – This is a person s reaction to the impact of the external environment, as well as motivated, conscious actions, in which a person s attitude towards people, society and the world as a whole is expressed. A person s behavior can be benevolent or aggressive, expedient or criminal. Behavior can correspond to the norms of ethics and morality, or be deviant, that is, strongly deviate from generally accepted norms in society.
The psychology of human behavior depends on his character, temperament and personality type. And, of course, from the external environment that affects a person. Psychologists and sociologists are working on the question of what human behavior depends on. Which has more influence, genetics or the external environment? The science that deals with research in this area is called sociobiology or human ethology… At the moment, there is no direct evidence of the dependence of behavior on human genetics. In search of an answer, F. Galton launched a study of the human genotype and chromosomes. This area of ??science is called behavioral genetics.
To move is to live
Man Is an active creature. The activity can be varied. It is expressed in human activity.
Activity – a type of activity aimed at cognition and creative transformation of the world, interaction with the outside world. In the process of activity, a person achieves the set goals that have arisen as a result of the emergence of certain desires and motives.
There is a direct connection between the psychology of behavior and human activity. As we can see from the definitions of “behavior” and “activity”, the active activity of a person and his position in life depend on the psychology, character and behavior of a person.
Human behavior is not always purposeful, it is often spontaneous. Is influenced by emotions and feelings. Activities always have a specific goal, aimed at creating a certain product. Activities are always organized, planned and systematic.
The main characteristics of the activity are the motive, which determines why it is necessary to carry out the activity; the goal of the activity is what a person wants to get as a result; object and means – what a person will have to work with and by what means and ways he is going to achieve a certain goal.
As a result of activity, changes occur in the external world or with the person himself. If a person s activity is aimed at self-development, then as a result he will change, acquire new knowledge, skills and develop new character traits, abilities, talents. This will undoubtedly affect the psychology of human behavior.
A. Adler s typology
A. Adler s typology is based on the relationship between the psychology of behavior and human activity. He distinguishes these types of people:
- Control type… Such people are characterized by an active life position, it seems to them that the world was created in order to receive benefits and benefits from it at the lowest cost. Their behavior is mostly assertive, aggressive and often immoral. Many people of this type become â€œthieves in lawâ€, organizers of mafia structures. This also includes politicians.
- Taker type. These are inactive people who take everything from life that comes easily. Usually their behavior is characterized by its parasitic nature. For example, they sit on the neck of someone or some organization and take from it everything that it can give. At the same time, without making any effort. Their behavior is usually careless, relaxed and inactive.
- Avoidant type. Such people do not strive for success. Basically, they try to avoid any problems and failures. They behave very carefully, do not make their own decisions, avoid responsibility. Often engaged in socially useless activities.
- Socially useful type… Such people show true concern for others, are interested in communicating with them. Treat people with kindness and an open mind. Such people do not have to help others financially or do some kind of service, they just make a feasible contribution to the common work. These are mature people who know how to solve problems, realize their competence, place in life and society.
Such people behave courageously, positively and responsibly.
Adler believes that each person solves three global problems in life: work, friendship and love. The psychology of behavior and human activity determines how much a person is able to solve these issues.
In practice, the Heimans-La Senna typology is most often used, which distinguishes 8 types of a person s character, depending on the psychology of behavior and human activity. His typology was based on the following components: activity, emotionality and secondary nature. Emotionality is how strongly a person reacts to external circumstances. Activity is the need for action. Some people are constantly acting, while others are just thinking, dreaming of how to do something. Primacy or secondary nature – how long and strongly experienced impressions
The main types of people according to the principle of psychological behavior
- Nervous type… Their behavior is characterized by strong emotionality, irritability, inconsistency. They are often distrustful, suspicious, like to brag, and are constantly awaiting praise. They do not accept monotony and monotony in their activities, they cannot concentrate their attention.
- Sentimental personality type is emotional, worries about everything for a long time, hardworking, thinks everything over for a long time… They do not tolerate injustice, rudeness. Often such people are involved in teaching or charity work.
- Stormy type Are impulsive, energetic and curious people. They are usually in a good mood. Such people are called “the soul of the company.” Having tremendous energy, they are able to overcome any obstacles, work for days until they finish what they started. To be effective, they need their own team, which will always support and encourage.
- Passionate type Are strong people who live by one idea. They confidently stride towards their goal. They are neat, they love order, they are monogamous. Rarely change habits and lifestyle. In behavior they are very stubborn, persistent. Such people occupy leadership positions or organize their own business.
- Heymans sanguine – this is an active person, easily adapts to new circumstances, tireless and cheerful. They are thorough, accurate and responsible. This is that rare type of people. Who can be entrusted with any work.
- Phlegmatic people are slow, calm… They love being alone. They love order and neatness. These are reliable people who are distinguished by decency and justice. They can easily be entrusted with managing the financial affairs of the company, keeping records. They know how to plan and assign responsibilities.
- Amorphous-carefree personality type behaves carefree and calm… These people are always friendly, polite and peaceful. They love to receive everything “for free”. They don t put much effort into anything. They are suitable for collective activity, where their personal inactivity is hardly noticeable.
- Apathetic personality type is indifferent to everything, lazy… Such a person is suitable for activities where he can be as much alone with himself as possible.
As you can see, the psychology of human behavior greatly affects the field of activity. If a person accidentally falls into the wrong place or takes a position that does not correspond to his type, then he will either leave himself or he will be helped to leave.
Psychologists also distinguish a special type of personality – manipulators. These are individuals who use other people to achieve their goals or use themselves to achieve their goals. The paradox is that a person is often not aware of this. For example, a merchant who persuades people to buy an unnecessary thing. Or parents who make the child behave well by bullying or promising gifts. And also children who hysterically achieve what they want.
Of course, there are people who think of manipulative behavior, such as politicians or the “new Russians”. To manipulators are “whiners” who can spend hours talking about how bad things are with them. These people are united by the fact that they perceive people as things. For a merchant, you are a bag of money, for a banker, a client with money, for a politician, an electorate, etc.
The psychology of the manipulator s behavior boils down to the fact that he does not understand the real meaning of life, does not experience real feelings. He is trying to control everything, life is a game for him and he is trying to catch everyone on his “bait”. The manipulator is cynical and distrustful of people. In relationships with people, he sees only two options – to manage or be controlled.
Therefore, their activity, depending on the manifestation of manipulation in behavior, is associated with management, dictatorship. Often there are judges among them or, on the contrary, hooligans and extortionists. Blackmailers, swindlers, advertising agents are all manipulators. People who manipulate endless whining are parasites, eternal students, dependents.
To get rid of destructive manipulative behavior, you must first realize that you are a manipulator. Life is possible without manipulation, you just need to understand its essence and be psychologically literate.
Behavioral psychology greatly affects a person s life. Many of your features are visible to the naked eye, so if a person wants to take a good position or engage in a certain field of activity, you need to analyze all your shortcomings and work on yourself. Self-improvement will expand the boundaries of areas of activity for you. Whatever type you are, work on yourself and achieve your goals.